May 2, 1999 Held


Republic of Panama

Election for Panamanian Presidency


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:1,326,663
Valid Votes:1,274,505
Invalid Votes:52,158

Vote Share by Candidate:

Mireya MOSCOSO571,058


Martin TORRIJOS481,988


Alberto VALLARINO221,459

Election Results Modified: Oct 08, 2013

General Information

At stake in this election:

  • The office of President of Panama

Description of government structure:

  • Chief of State: President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES *
  • Head of Government: President Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES
  • Assembly: Panama has a unicameral National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) with 72 seats.

* The president is both the chief of state and head of government. The President may not serve for more than one consecutive term of office.

Description of electoral system:

  • The President is elected by simple majority vote to serve a 5-year term.
  • In the National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional), 26 members are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies to serve 5-year terms and 45 members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve 5-year terms.

Main Candidates in the Presidential race:

  • Mireya MOSCOSO*
    • Alliance: Union for Panama
  • Martin TORRIJOS**
    • Alliance: New Nation Alliance
  • Alberto VALLARINO***
    • Alliance: Opposition Action

* The Union for Panama is endorsed by the Arnulfista Party, the Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (MOLIRENA), the Nationalist Republican Movement (MORENA), and the Democratic Change Party.
** The New Nation Alliance is endorsed by the Democratic Revolutionary Party, the National Liberal Party, the Solidarity Party, and the Motherland Movement.
*** The Opposition Action is endorsed by the Christian Democratic Party (PDC), the Civic Renewal Party (PRC), the Popular Nationalist Party (PNP), and the Liberal Party.

Last Presidential election:

  • The last presidential election held was held on May 8, 1994. In this election, Ernesto PEREZ BALLADARES Gonzalez Revilla received 33.3% of the vote and thus defeated Mireya MOSCOSO, his closest competitor with 29.1% of the vote.

Population and number of registered voters:

  • Population: 2,970,193 (1999)
  • Registered Voters: 1,746,989 (1999)

Gender Data:

·         Female Population: 1,473,131 (1999)

·         Is Panama a signatory to CEDAW: Yes (26 June 1980)

·         Has Panama ratified CEDAW: Yes (29 October 1981)

·         Gender Quota: Yes

·         Female candidates in this election: N/A

·         Number of Female Parliamentarians: 7 (following the 1999 elections)

·         Human Development Index Position: 60 (2014)

·         Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: Very Low (2014)

Disability Data:

·         Is Panama a signatory to CRPD: Yes (30 March 2007)

·         Has Panama ratified CRPD: Yes (7 August 2007)

·         Population with a disability: 445,528 (est.)

Election Modified: May 10, 2024

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