July 23, 2023 Held


Kingdom of Spain

Election for Senado (Spanish Senate)


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:24,413,924
Valid Votes:23,854,321
Invalid Votes:559,603

Vote Share by Party:

Party Seats Won Seats Change Votes

People's Party (PP) (Partido Popular) 120

Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) 72

Left for Independence (Izquierdas por la Independencia) 7

Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) (Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea - Partido Nacionalista Vasco) 4

Ibiza and Formentara in the Senate (Eivissa i Formentara al Senat) 1

Together for Catalonia (Junts per Catalunya) 1

Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) (Agrupación Herreña Independiente) 1

Navarrese People's Union (UPN) (Unión del Pueblo Navarro) 1

Gomera Socialist Group (ASG) (Gomera Socialist Group) 1

Election Results Modified: Aug 22, 2023

General Information

At Stake in this Election: 

  • 208 seats of the Spanish Senate 

Government Structure:  

  • Chief of State: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014) 

  • Head of Government: President Pedro SÁNCHEZ Pérez-Castejón (since 2 June 2018) 

  • Assembly: bicameral General Courts (Cortes Generales) including a 265-seat Senate (Senado) and a 348-seat Congress of Deputies (Congresso de los Diputados) 

Electoral System:  

  • The King is a hereditary monarch. 

  • The President, typically the leader of the largest congressional party or coalition, is nominated by the King and elected by the Congress of Deputies. 

  • In the Senate, 208 members are directly elected by plurality vote in multi-seat constituencies. The remaining 57 members are indirectly elected by autonomous community legislatures. All members serve 4-year terms. 

  • In the Congress of Deputies, 348 members are directly elected via closed-list proportional representation vote in multi-seat constituencies, and lists much receive at least 3% of the vote to win a seat. 2 members are elected from Ceuta and Melilla by plurality vote. All members serve 4-year terms. 

Last Election: 

In 2019, the top vote-getters were the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSOE) with 92 seats and the People’s Party (PP) with 84 seats. Eight additional parties also won seats, and voter turnout was 68%. 

New/Unique in this Election:  

In May 2023, Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez called legislative snap elections following his party’s poor performances in the municipal elections of May 2023.  

Key Deadlines: 

  • Candidate filing deadline: 19 June 2023 

  • Coalitions must be proposed by 9 June 2023 

  • Voter registration deadline: 12 June 2023 (to request modification of registration)  

  • Residents of Spain who seek to vote by mail must register by 13 July 2023. 

Main Parties in this Election: 

  • Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party / Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) 

  • Leader: Pedro SÁNCHEZ Pérez-Castejón 

  • Seats won in last election: 92 out of 208 

  • People’s Party / Partido Popular (PP) 

  • Leader: Alberto Núñez FEIJÓO 

  • Seats won in last election: 84 out of 208 

  • VOX 

  • Leader: Santiago ABASCAL 

  • Seats won in last election: 2 out of 208 

  • Unite / Sumar 

  • Coalition including Movimiento Sumar, Podemos, Izquierda Unida, Más País, Verdes Equo, Alianza Verde, and several regional parties 

  • Leader: Yolanda DÍAZ Pérez 

  • Seats won in last election: established in 2023 

  • Republican Left of Catalonia – Sovereigntists / Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya - Sobiranistes 

  • Regional coalition 

  • Leader: Oriol JUNQUERAS Vies 

  • Seats won in last election: 11 out of 208 

  • Basque Nationalist Party / Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea (EAJ-PNV) 

  • Regional party 

  • Leader: Andoni ORTUZAR Arruabarrena 

  • Seats won in last election: 9 out of 208 

  • Together for Catalonia / Junts per Catalunya (JxCat) 

  • Regional party 

  • Leader: Laura BORRÀS i Castanyer 

  • Seats won in last election: 3 out of 208 

  • Teruel Exists / Teruel Existe 

  • Regional party 

  • Leader: Tomás GUITARTE Gimeno 

  • Seats won in last election: 2 out of 208 

  • Basque Country Unite / Euskal Herria Bildu (EHB) 

  • Regional party 

  • Leader: Arnaldo OTEGI Mondragon 

  • Seats won in last election: 1 out of 208 

Population and Registered Voters: 

Gender Data: 

  • Female Population: 24,216,725 (2023 est.)  

  • CEDAW Status: Signed 17 July 1980, Ratified 5 January 1984 

  • Gender Quota: Yes; candidates of each sex must make up at least 40% of congressional lists, and for lists of fewer than 5 candidates, the male to female candidate ratio must be as even as possible; lists for the senate must also have a male to female candidate ratio as close to even as possible 

  • Female Candidates in this election: Yes 

Disability Data: 

IFES Resources: 

  • Does IFES have a presence in Spain: No 

  • Election Access: Yes 

  • Election Judgements: Yes, 8 judgements and 18 resources 

Election Modified: Aug 02, 2023

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