May 21, 2023 Held


Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

Election for Timorese National Parliament


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:705,693
Valid Votes:692,521
Invalid Votes:13,172

Vote Share by Party:

Party Seats Won Seats Change Votes

National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (Congresso Nacional de Reconstrução de Timor-Leste) 31 - 288,289


Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente) 19 - 178,338


Democratic Party 6 - 64,517


Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan (Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan) 5 - 52,031


People's Liberation Party (Partidu Libertasaun Popular) 4 - 40,720

Election Results Modified: Aug 28, 2023

General Information

At Stake in this Election: 

  • All 65 seats of the Timorese National Parliament 

Government Structure:  

  • Chief of State: President José RAMOS-HORTA (since May 2022) 

  • Head of Government: Prime Minister Taur Matan RUAK (since June 2018) 

  • Assembly: unicameral National Parliament (Parlamento Nacional) with 65 seats 

Electoral System:  

  • The president is directly elected by absolute majority vote in up to two rounds. The president may serve up to two 5-year terms. 

  • The prime minister is appointed by the president following legislative elections in which their party or coalition wins a majority. 

  • All 65 members of the National Parliament are directly elected via closed-list proportional representation vote in a single nationwide constituency. Seats are distributed using the D’Hondt method, and party lists must win at least 4% of the vote to receive a seat. Members serve 5-year terms. 

Last Election: 

In 2018, the AMP coalition won a plurality of seats (34), followed by the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (23), the Democratic Party (5), and the Democratic Development Front (3). Voter turnout was 80.98%. 

Key Deadlines: 

  • Candidate filing deadline: 15 March 2023 

  • Voter registration deadline: N/A (voters are automatically and continuously registered) 

Main Candidates in this Election: 

  • Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor / Frente Revolucionária do Timor-Leste Independente (FRETILIN) 

  • Leader: Francisco Guterres (LÚ OLO) 

  • Seats won in last election: 23 out of 65 

  • National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction / Congresso Nacional da Reconstrução Timorense (CNRT) 

  • Leader: Xanana GUSMÃO 

  • Seats won in last election: 21 out of 65 

  • People’s Liberation Party / Partido Libertação Popular (PLP) 

  • Leader: Taur Matan RUAK 

  • Seats won in last election: 9 out of 65 (part of AMP coalition) 

  • KHUNTO / Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nacional Timor Oan (KHUNTO) 

  • Leader: Armanda Berta DOS SANTOS 

  • Seats won in last election: 5 out of 65 (part of AMP coalition) 

  • Democratic Party / Partido Democrático (PD) 

  • Leader: Mariano SABINO 

  • Seats won in last election: 5 out of 65 

  • UDT/FM Coalition / Coligação União Democrática Timorense/Frenti-Mudança (UDT/FM) 

  • Leader: José Luís GUTERRES 

  • Seats won in last election: 2 out of 65 

  • Unity and Democratic Development Party / Partido Unidade e Desenvolvimento Democrático (PUDD) 

  • Leader: Silvestre SUFA 

  • Seats won in last election: 1 out of 65 

Population and Registered Voters: 

Gender Data: 

  • CEDAW Status: Ratified (by accession) 16 April 2003 

  • Gender Quota: On party lists, 1 of every 3 candidates must be a woman. If a female candidate drops out of the campaign, her spot must be filled by the next female candidate on the list. 

  • Female Candidates in this election: Yes 

  • Number of Female Legislators (pre-election): 25 out of 65 (38%) in the National Parliament  

  • Human Development Index (HDI) Position: 0.607, Medium, Rank 140 (2021 est.)  

Disability Data: 

IFES Resources: 

  • Does IFES have a presence in Timor-Leste: Yes, programming 

  • Election FAQs: Yes

  • Election Access: Yes 

  • Election Judgements: Yes, 5 resources  

Election Modified: Aug 28, 2023

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