Oct. 22, 2017 Held



Election for Shugiin (Japanese House of Representatives)


Voter Participation

Cast Votes:56,947,831
Valid Votes:None
Invalid Votes:None

Vote Share by Party:

Party Seats Won Seats Change Votes

Liberal Democratic Party (Jiyuminshuto) 284

Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan (立憲民主党) 55

Party of Hope (Kibō no Tō) 50

Komeito (Hoshu Shinto) 29

Japanese Communist Party (Nihon Kyōsan-tō) 12

Nippon Ishin no Kai (日本維新の会) 11

Social Democratic Party of Japan (Shakai Minshuto) 2

Election Results Modified: Jan 19, 2023

General Information

Japan: House of Representatives, 22 October 2017

At stake in this election:     

  • 465 seats in Japan’s House of Representatives (Shugiin)

Note on the results: Seats listed are the total number of seats won in the election. The vote counts represent the proportional representation vote.

Description of government structure:

  • Chief of State: Emperor AKHITO (since 7 January 1989) *
  • Head of Government: Prime Minister Shinzo ABE (since 26 December 2012)
  • Assembly: Japan has a bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consisting of the House of Councillors (Sangiin) with 242 seats and the House of Representatives (Shugiin) with 465 seats.**

* Japan's emperor, AKHITO, serves as a symbolic figurehead of the nation's past. Unlike other monarchies, the emperor of Japan is not even the nominal head of state. Japan's Constitution, written in 1947, demoted the emperor to a “symbol of the state and of the unity of the people,” stripping the emperor of all “powers related to government.”

** The number of seats was reduced from 475 to 465 in 2017.

Description of electoral system:

  • The Emperor is hereditary.
  • The Prime Minister is appointed by parliament.
  • In the House of Councillors (Sangiin), 96 members are elected through an open-list proportional representation system to serve 6-year terms and 146 members are elected by single non-transferable vote to serve 6-year terms.*
  • In the House of Representatives (Shugiin), 289 members are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies to serve 4-year terms and 176 members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system to serve 4-year terms.**

* Terms are staggered with one half of each tier elected every election. In the ordinal tier, there is one nationwide district. In the nominal tier, constituencies correspond to prefectural or metropolitan boundaries. There are 47 constituencies with magnitudes ranging from 2 and 10 seats. Because half of all members are up for reelection every cycle, 31 members run in single-seat districts (their fellow district representative is not running) and 42 members run in 16 multi-member districts consisting of anywhere between 2 and 5 seats. In order to secure a seat, a candidate must obtain enough votes that are equal to or greater than one-sixth of the total number of valid votes divided by the number of contested seats in the district.

** In the proportional representation tier, there are 11 multi-member districts consisting of anywhere between 6 and 29 seats. Candidacy in both tiers is permitted, however, candidates are only allowed to run in the proportional representation block in which their single-seat constituency is located. Candidates running in single-member districts must secure one-sixth of all votes to win a seat.

Election Note:

Prime Minister Shinzo ABE called for snap elections. Elections were originally scheduled for 2018. 

Main parties in the electoral race:

  • Party: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) / Jiyū-Minshutō
    • Leader: Shinzo ABE
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: 290
  • Party: Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan (CDP) / Rikken Minshutō
    • Leader: Yukio EDANO
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: 73
  • Party: Komeito 
    • Leader: Natsuo YAMAGUCHI
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: 35
  • Party: Japanese Communist Party (JCP) / Nihon Kyōsan-tō
    • Leader: Kazuo SHII
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: 21
  • Party: Social Democratic Party (SDP) / Shakai Minshu-tō
    • Leader: Seji MATAICHI
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: 2
  • Party: Nippon Ishin no Kai
    • Leader: Ichirō MATSUI
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: N/A
  • Party: Party of Hope / Kibō no Tō
    • Leader: Yuriko Kuike
    • Seats won in last House of Representatives election: N/A

Population and number of registered voters:

  • Population: 126,451,398 (July 2017 est.)
  • Registered Voters: 103,959,866 (November 2012)

Gender Data:

  • Female Population:65250786 (2016 est)
  • Is Japan a signatory to CEDAW: Yes (17 July 1980)
  • Has Japan ratified CEDAW: Yes (25 June 1985)
  • Gender Quota:  No
  • Female Candidates in this election: N/A
  • Number of Female Legislators: 47 of 465 seats in the House of Representatives (Shugiin).
  • Human Development Index (HDI) Position: 17
  • Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Ranking: Not Ranked (latest rankings are from 2014)
Election Modified: Jan 19, 2023

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