At stake in this election:
- The 200 seats in the election of the Majlis Al Nuwab or Council of Representatives[i]
Description of government structure:
- Chief of State: General National Congress President Nuri Abu SAHMAYN
- Head of Government: Prime Minister Abdullah al-THINNI[ii]
- Assembly: Unicameral “General National Congress”
Description of electoral system
- The Chief of State was elected by the General National Congress
- The Prime Minister was elected by the General National Congress
- In the General National Congress (Al Mutamar Al Watani Al Aam), 40 members were elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies, 80 members were elected by plurality vote in multi-member constituencies, and 80 members were elected through a closed-list proportional representation system.[iii]
- In the Council of Representatives (Majlis Al Nuwab), all members will be elected through a majoritarian system for single-member and multi-member sub-constituencies. There are 13 primary electoral constituencies, further divided into 75 sub-constituencies. Of the 200 seats, 32 seats are reserved for women.[iv]
- The 25 June 2014 election replaces the General National Congress (GNC) with the Council of Representatives.
- Prime Minister al-THINNI stepped down after an attack on his family in early 2014. His replacement was to be Ahmed MAETIG, but al-THINNI refused to hand over power due to irregularities and wanted the Libyan Supreme Court to decide the matter. The Court declared MAETIG’s election by Parliament to be unconstitutional. Al-THINNI is to remain the caretaker Prime Minister until the 25 June 2014 election.
Political entities in Libya:[i]
- Political entities will not submit lists in this election as opposed to GNC elections, where lists were elected under a proportional representation (PR) system.
- Candidates in this election will run as individuals, as per Law 10/2014 on the Election of the Council of Representatives during the Transitional Period , which states: “The individual electoral system, based on the single non-transferable vote, shall be used for the election of the Council of Representatives.”
- On 20 February 2014, Libyans elected a 55-member assembly to draft a new constitution.[ii] Results can be found here. Its work began on Sunday 20 April 2014. The new assembly had 120 days to draft a constitution, though most observers believe it will take longer.[iii] Once the draft constitution is finished, a referendum will be held to ratify it.
- Prior to the constitution vote, the last election was for the unicameral General National Congress (GNC), which took place on took place on 7 July 2012. It consisted of 200 seats. For party-list seats, the Justice and Development Party (JDP)/ Ḥizb al-ʿAdālah wat-Tanmiyah attained won 17 seats, the February 17th Coalition of political parties and civil society groups won 39 seats, and the National Centrist Party won 2 seats.[iv] Results can be found here and here.
Population and Voter Registration:
- Population: 6,244,174 (July 2014 est)[v]
- Registered Voters: 1.5 million voters out of 3.4 eligible voters (May 30, 2014)[vi]
- Registered OCV Voters: 10,087 voters in 13 countries.[vii]
· Female Population: 3,103,220 (2014)
· Is Libya a signatory to CEDAW: No
· Has Libya ratified CEDAW: Yes, accession (16 May 1989)
· Gender Quota: No
· Female candidates in this election: Yes
· Number of Female Parliamentarians: 30 (following the 2014 elections)
· Human Development Index Position: 94 (2014)
· Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: N/A
· Is Libya a signatory to CRPD: Yes (1 May 2008)
· Has Libya ratified CRPD: No
· Population with a disability: 936,626 (est.)
[i] Political parties are taken from the 7 July 2012 General National Congress election.
[ii] There were supposed to be 60-members, but violence inhibited the ability to hold elections in certain parts of the country. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/21/us-libya-constitution-idUSBREA3K0NS20140421
[i] The Council of Representatives will replace the General National Congress (GNC). http://allafrica.com/stories/201406131396.html
[iii] District magnitude for the proportional districts ranges from 3 to 11. Article 15 of the election law mandates that candidates should alternate genders on the lists and that half of all a party's list must have a female at the top. District magnitude for the SNTV (plurality vote in multi-member constituencies) seats ranges from 2 to 9. Fifty of the 69 majoritarian districts will be parallel, meaning they contain both a proportional tier and either a SNTV or SMD tier. Three geographic constituencies will feature only a proportional representation ballot being provided to voters. Political entity/party affiliation cannot be indicated on the ballot for the 120 ‘individual’ candidates that are running in the 69 majoritarian constituencies. This was the case for the 7 July 2012 General National Congress election.
[iv] District magnitude for multi-member constituencies ranges from 2-16. Article 18 of the election law stipulates that 16% of seats are reserved for women. All candidates are competing in a FTPT or SNTV system in 13 electoral districts that are further divided into 75 sub-constituencies. Candidates for reserved seats for women will compete in 27 of the 75 sub-constituencies.