*The second round of elections will be held on 22 November 2015. This first round of elections was held for certain governates, with the remaining governates voting in the second round in November.
At stake in this election:
- The 568 seats in the House of Representatives
Description of government structure:
- Chief of State: President Abdel Fattah al-SISI (since 2014)
- Head of Government: Prime Minister Sherif ISMAIL (since 2015)
- Assembly: 568 seat House of Representatives*
*After the dissolution of the parliament’s lower chamber, the People’s Assembly (Majlis Al-Sha’b), in June 2012 and its upper chamber, the Advisory Council (Majilis Al-Shura), in July 2013, the new constitution (promulgated on 18 January 2014 by the interim president) allowed for the creation of a unicameral House of Representatives. The constitution stipulates that the new body must have at least 450 members serving for 5 year terms. Article 102 of the 2014 constitution states that the electoral system may be “individual, list, or mixed”.
Description of electoral system:
- The President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system to serve a four-year term.
- The House of Representatives will be comprised of 568 members elected by direct secret public ballot on two phases, and the President has the authority to appoint up to five percent of the total number of elected seats following elections. The electoral system is composed of a unique combination of two separate majoritarian electoral components: the first component consists of individual candidates competing for 448 seats, while the second component consists of electoral lists competing for 120 seats. Both political party members and independents can run under either system.
Main parties and alliances in the electoral race under the list system (Phase I):
- Party: Al-Nour
Leader: Yunis MAKHYUN
- Coalition: Al Sahwa Al Wataniya
Leader: Mohamed El Aswany
- Coalition: Fi Hobb Misr
Leader: Sameh Seif Al Yazzal
- Party: Forsaan Misr
Leader: Abdel Rafe’ Darwish
- Coalition: Nidaa Misr
Leader: Tarek Zidan
- Party: Itlaaf Al Jabha Al Misriya wa Tayaar Al Istiklal
Leader:Mohamed Al Fadali
Main parties in the electoral race under the individual system (Phase I):
Al Nour, Mostakbal Watan, Al Haraka Al Wataniya Al Misriya, Al Wafd Al Jadid, Misr Balady, Misr Al Haditha, Forsan Misr, Al Masry Al Dimokrati Al Ijtimaei, Al Moatamar, Al Misriyin Al Ahrar, Homaat Al Watan, Al Salam Al Ijtimaei, Al Sareh Al Misry, Al Mohafezin, Misr Al Thawra, Horaas Al Thawra, Al Islah Wal Tanmiya, Al Shaab Al Jomhoury, Al Araby Lil Adl Wal Mosawa, Al Tahalof Al Shabei Al Ishtiraki, Misr Al Qawmi, Al Arabi Al Dimokrati Al Naseri, Al Sadat Al Dimokrati, Nahdet Misr, Misr Al Fata Al Jadid, Al Ahrar Al Dostouriyoun Al Jadid, Al Tajamo’ Al Watani Al Takadomi Al Wahdawi, Al Karama, Al Masry, Kotlet Al Sahwa Al Wataneyya, Misr Al Orouba, Misr Al Mostaqbal, Al Isslah wal Nahda, Al Intima’a Al Misry, Al Bedaiah, Al Adala Al Ijtima’iya, Al Riyaadah, Al Khodr, Al Horriyah, Al Thawra Al Masriya
- The last election for the House of Representatives was held between 28 November 2011 and 22 February 2012. There were 47,192,169 registered voters for the election and 29,279,884 people voted.
- For the Advisory Council (elections held from 29 January 2012 through 14 February 2012), the Freedom and Justice Alliance (led by the Muslim Brotherhood) won 105 seats (45% of the vote), Al Nour Party won 45 seats (28.6% of the vote), the New Wafd Party won 14 seats (8.5% of the vote), the Egyptian Bloc won 8 seats (5.4% of the vote), Al Horriya Party won 4 seats, the Democratic Peace won 1 seat, independents won 4 seats, and there were 90 presidential appointees.
- For the People's Assembly (held in three stages from 28 November 2011 to 11 January 2012), the Freedom and Justice Alliance won 235 seats (37.5% of the vote), Al Nour Alliance won 123 seats (27.8% of the vote), the New Wafd Party won 38 seats (9.2% of the vote), the Egyptian Bloc won 34 seats (8.9% of the vote), the Al-Wasat Party won 10 seats (3.7% of the vote), The Revolution Continues Alliance won 8 seats (2.8% of the vote), the Reform and Development Party won 9 seats (2.2% of the vote), the National Party of Egypt won 5 seats (1.6% of the vote), the Freedom Party won 4 seats (1.9% of the vote), the Egyptian Citizen Party won 4 seats (0.9% of the vote), others won 6 seats (3.5% of the vote), independents won 21 seats, and there were 10 Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) appointees.
Population and number of registered voters:
- Population: 86,487,396 (July 2015 est.)
- Registered Voters: 55,606,579 (2015)
- Female Population: 43,243,698 (July 2015 est.)
- Is Egypt a signatory to CEDAW: Yes (16 July 1980)
- Has Egypt ratified CEDAW: Yes (18 September 1981 with reservations)
- Gender Quota: Yes*
- Female Candidates in this election: Yes
- Number of Female Legislators: At least 56 female legislators will be elected as per the quota in the lists. It is worth-noting that the President has the right to appoint up to 28 members, at least half that number must be women. Assuming the President will appoint all 28 members, this would bring the number of female legislators to at least 70. This election could witness the highest representation of women in Egyptian Parliament.
- Human Development Index (HDI) Position: 110
- Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: Very High
*Note: Article 11 of the newly adopted Constitution of Egypt (adopted through a referendum in January 2014) provides that “the State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution. The State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate representation of women in the houses of representatives, as specified by Law. The State shall also guarantee women’s right of holding public and senior management offices in the State and their appointment in judicial bodies and authorities without discrimination”. In spite of demands by many women’s organizations to assign a "quota" for women in parliament, the 50-Member Committee refused to approve a quota for any societal group or religious sect in parliament. However, in a positive development, Article 180 of the new Constitution assigns a quota of "one quarter of the seats" for women in the elected local councils. This is considered a positive step on the road to achieving women’s representation.” For more information on the new Egyptian constitution, visit http://www.sis.gov.eg/Newvr/Dustor-en001.pdf.
- Is Egypt a signatory to CRPD: Yes (4 April 2007)
- Has Egypt ratified CRPD: Yes (14 April 2008)