At stake in this election:
- The office of President of Philippines
Description of government structure:
- Chief of State: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO *
- Head of Government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO
- Assembly: Philippines has a bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consisting of the Senate (Senado) with 24 seats and the House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan) with 287 seats.
* The president is both chief of state and head of government.
Description of electoral system:
- The President is elected by plurality vote to serve a 6-year term.
- In the Senate (Senado) 24 members are elected by plurality vote in multi-member constituencies to serve 6-year terms*. In the House of Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan), 230 members are elected by plurality vote in single-member constituencies to serve 3-year terms and 57 members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system to serve 3-year terms.**
* One-half of members are elected every three years. There is one national constituency. Senators are elected at-large from the country. Electors may vote up to 12 times.
** Under constitutional provisions, the PR tier must comprise 20 percent of total seats. While the constitution provides for a 250-member House, it also permits the legislature to change that size. Numbers above reflect the current apportionment. In the PR tier, members generally represent special "sectoral" minorities, though this constitutional provision was set to expire after three terms from 1987. (The 1987 constitution reserved half of these seats to said groups.) Under a 2009 court ruling related to the 2007 legislative elections, a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other, effectively reserving all PR seats to minor parties. The threshold in the PR tier is 2 percent, but no party may hold more than three seats in it. Prior to the 2009 ruling, elections would not necessarily fill all PR seats.
Main Candidates in the Presidential race:
- Benigno Simeon Cojuangco-AQUINO III
- Joseph ESTRADA
- Richard GORDON
- Party: Bagumbayan-Volunteers for a New Philippines
- Gilberto TEODORO
- Eddie VILLANUEVA
- Manuel Bamba VILLAR Jr
- John Carlos DE LOS REYES
- Maria Ana Consuelo MADRIGAL-VALADE
- Nicanor Jesus Pineda PERLAS, III
Population and number of registered voters:
- Population: 93,038,902 (2010)
- Registered Voters: 50,896,164 (2010)
· Female Population: 45,979,384 (2010)
· Is Philippines a signatory to CEDAW: Yes (15 July 1980)
· Has Philippines ratified CEDAW: Yes (5 August 1981)
· Gender Quota: No (there are some political parties that have adopted voluntary gender quotas)
· Female candidates in this election: Yes
· Number of Female Parliamentarians: 62 (House of Representatives); 3 (Senate) following the 2010 elections)
· Human Development Index Position: 115 (2014)
· Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) Categorization: Medium (2014)
· Is Philippines a signatory to CRPD: Yes (25 September 2007)
· Has Philippines ratified CRPD: Yes (15 April 2008)
· Population with a disability: 13,955,835 (est.)