At stake in this election:
- 601 seats in the Constituent Assembly (Sambidhan Sabha).
Description of government structure:
- Chief of State: President Ram Baran YADAV
- Head of Government: Prime Minister Khil Raj REGMI
- Assembly: Nepal had a unicameral Constituent Assembly (Sambidhan Sabha) with 601 seats. The Constituent Assembly was an interim legislature established in 2008 tasked with writing a new constitution. It was dissolved in May 2012, with the current election set to elect a replacement.
Description of electoral system:
- In the Constituent Assembly (Sambidhan Sabha), 240 members are elected by plurality vote in first-past-the-post single-member constituencies, 335 members are elected through a closed-list proportional representation system and 26 members are appointed by the Cabinet.
Main Parties in the Electoral Race:
- Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (UCPN(M)) / एकीकृत नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी)
Leader: Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (Prachanda)
Seats won in last election: 220; Nominated seats: 9
- Nepali Congress / नेपाली काँग्रेस
Leader: Sushil KOIRALA
Seats won in last election: 110; Nominated seats: 5
- Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (CPN-UML) / नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (एकिकृत मार्क्सवादी–लेनवादी)
Leader: Jhala Nath KHANAL
Seats won in last election: 103; Nominated seats: 5
- Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal (MJF) / मधेसी जन अधिकार फोरम, नेपाल
Leader: Upenda YADAV
Seats won in last election: 52; Nominated seats: 2
- Tarai-Madhesh Loktantrik Party (TMLP) / तराई-मधेश लोकतान्त्रिक पार्टी
Leader: Mahanta THAKUR
Seats won in last election: 20; Seats nominated: 1
- Sadbhavana Party / सद्-भावना पार्टी
Leader: Rajendra MAHATO
Seats won in last election: 9
- Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP) / राष्ट्रिय प्रजातन्त्र पार्टी
Leader: Pashupati SJB RANA
Seats won in last election: 8
Population and number of registered voters:
- Population: 30,430,267 (July 2013 est.)
- Registered Voters: 12,200,000 (October 2013 est.)
 YADAV is the first ever president of Nepal. The position was created after the country was declared a republic in 2008.
 REGMI is the Chief Justice of Nepal's Supreme Court tasked with leading Nepal through Constituent Assembly elections by December 2013.
 The proportional representation tier contains one, nationwide district. Candidates may run in only one tier.
 Nine members of the TMLP, led by Minister of Industry Mahendra Raya YADEV, left the party on December 31, 2010 due to internal politics. They formed a new party, the Tarai-Madhesh Loktranik Party-Nepal.